The standard of care recommended for the treatment of patients with intermediate- and poor-risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is first-line immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (nivolumab plus ipilimumab), followed by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI) in the second-line (axitinib, cabozantinib).

A recent study published in European Journal of Cancer reviewed data from 68 metastatic RCC patients retrospectively. All patients were treated with VEGFR-TKIs after progression of disease on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Patients were treated with pazopanib, sunitinib, axitinib, or cabozantinib.

Median progression-free survival was 13.2 months. Overall, 39.7% of patients had a partial response and 52.9% of patients had stable disease.

Read more in European Journal of Cancer here