A comprehensive review of neoadjuvant therapy and adjuvant therapy for kidney cancer was presented at the American Urology Association conference in Boston, America, last week.

In kidney cancer, neoadjuvant (before surgery) and adjuvant (after surgery) therapies have achieved a variety of outcomes. Neoadjuvant therapy has been used to try and shrink kidney tumours and facilitate the surgical removal of the tumour. Adjuvant therapy is thought to control micro-metastatic disease and reduce tumour recurrence risks.

However, there is mixed evidence as to the efficacy of both neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for kidney cancer. Some studies show that neoadjuvant therapy facilitates removal of the tumour, while others do not. There is limited, encouraging data for neoadjuvant therapy, but this treatment remains experimental and requires more data. Recent data from two adjuvant therapy clinical trials are conflicting, and patients in both trials experienced significant toxicity. Several adjuvant therapy clinical trials are currently underway and may add more clarity as to whether adjuvant therapy is beneficial in kidney cancer.

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