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Cytoreductive nephrectomy is the removal of the tumour to reduce the number of cancer cells (tumour burden) and minimise the effects of a potentially immunosuppressive tumour, reduce the symptoms caused by the tumour, and prevent complications. During this study, overall survival was compared between patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who were treated by cytoreductive nephrectomy and those who were not.
The study included 278 patients with metastatic RCC treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients were divided into two groups: a group of patients who had a cytoreductive nephrectomy (immediate or delayed) and a group of patients who received systemic TKIs alone without cytoreductive nephrectomy (control group). Overall survival was compared between the two groups.
Of the 278 patients, 132 were in the control group and 146 were in the cytoreductive nephrectomy group. There was a significant difference in overall survival between the two groups, the cytoreductive nephrectomy group having a longer overall survival. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival between patients who had an immediate cytoreductive nephrectomy and those who delayed cytoreductive nephrectomy.
The findings from this study suggest that patients with metastatic RCC who have a cytoreductive nephrectomy are more likely to have longer overall survival than those who receive TKI treatment only.