The following review of the literature for first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was presented at the European Association of Urology (EAU) Section of Oncological Urology (ESOU) conference in Prague, Czech Republic last week.

The current paradigm for the first- and second-line treatment of RCC was presented based upon patient risk according to the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model. Patients with good-risk are recommended to have sunitinib or pazopanib in the first-line, and cabozantinib or nivolumab in the second-line. Patients with intermediate- or poor-risk are recommended to have ipilimumab/nivolumab combination in the first-line and a VEGF targeted therapy in the second-line.

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