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Neoadjuvant therapy is the treatment given as a first step to shrink a tumour before the main treatment (usually surgery) is given. It can help to make surgery easier and/or possible.
In this study, the researchers looked at the outcomes of patients with metastatic kidney cancer who responded to treatment with immunotherapy with a complete or major partial response (>80% response). These patients then had surgery to remove their kidney (or part of their kidney) on average 10 months later (a delayed nephrectomy). Progression-free survival at 1 year and 2 years were 96.7% and 78.3%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 1 year and 2 years were 100% and 86.1%, respectively. Patients whose metastases responded completely to treatment survived longer than patients with a major partial response.
These results suggest that selected patients with metastatic kidney cancer may be offered delayed nephrectomy.