This article reviews all the biomarkers that have been discovered for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cancer. The only kidney cancer biomarker mentioned is the immunogenic biomarker, PD-1, which is produced at high levels by tumour cells. However, the article mentions that not all patients who respond to check-point inhibitors (e.g. nivolumab) show a higher expression of immune checkpoint proteins, and vice versa. The drugs have also been shown to induce quite severe autoimmune effects. Thus, further biomarkers are needed to stratify patients, in order to fully harness the potential of this exciting new development.

Read the article in Drug Target Review here