There are a number of immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs available for the treatment of people with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the efficacy and safety of treating patients with two separate lines of immunotherapy (rechallenge) is unknown. This study looked at the safety and efficacy of rechallenge with an immune checkpoint inhibitor in patients with metastatic RCC.

In this multicentre study, 69 patients with metastatic RCC were treated with at least two separate lines of immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs, such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab or ipilimumab.

The overall response rate of rechallenge with an immune checkpoint inhibitor was 23%. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibitor rechallenge was reasonably safe, with 11 patients (16%) experiencing a severe or life-threatening immune-related adverse event. There were no treatment-related deaths.

In conclusion, this study suggests that rechallenge with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic RCC may be safe and reasonably effective, with an overall response rate of 23%.

Read more in JAMA Oncology here