In a recent study, published in BMC Cancer last month, it was reported that the levels of the programmed cell death proteins PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 varied between primary tumour, metastases and site of metastases. For example, PD-L1 was higher in metastatic tumours compared with primary tumours, and PD-1 expression was 65.3% in lung/lymph metastases compared with 10.5% in brain metastases and 12.5% in visceral metastases. Both PD-1 expression and PD-L1 expression in the primary or metastatic lesion was associated with shorter overall survival.

The researchers suggest that metastases should be analysed for these proteins to facilitate effective individualised treatment.

Read more in BMC Cancer here