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This article discusses the multiple gene changes (genetic heterogeneity) found in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its potential effect on treatment options and effectiveness of drugs for advanced RCC. The study identifies some gene changes (mutations), which may contribute to progression of RCC and the relatively poor efficacy of current drug treatment options. The article also discusses the importance of taking tissue samples from different parts of the tumour (multifocal tumour sampling) to assess the genetic profile, rather than a single biopsy, which can be inadequate.
A growing understanding of the genetic mutations and heterogeneity of the tumour tissue may offer new treatment options for patients.