A recent study, published in Cancer Science this month, suggests that PD-1 and PD-L1 expression by immune cells in kidney cancer tumours is involved in resistance to treatment, i.e. part of the reason why tumours stop responding to treatment. The researchers suggest that treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic strategy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) that is resistant to VEGF-TKI treatment.

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