The following review article summarises the work completed to date regarding the search for biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to better guide treatment and improve outcomes, while limiting side effects.

The role of biomarkers in RCC is controversial, due to uncertainty about which biomarker is the most beneficial. There is also debate about how often any biomarker should be monitored, how to quantify its effect, and how to determine which test results necessitate a therapeutic change.

Despite the research efforts to date regarding biomarkers in RCC, a thorough clinical assessment cannot currently be replaced with any biomarker. However, biomarkers will undoubtedly continue to be an important component of determining patient prognosis, identifying and recommending the best treatments for each individual patient, and assisting in monitoring how patients respond to treatment.

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